BNL X13A Optical System
The X13A optics consists of an integrally-water-cooled deflection/focusing mirror (M0) followed by a horizontally-dispersing soft x-ray spherical grating monochromator (SGM) and a 22-Hz polarization selection chopper. The M0 mirror, installed and commissioned in mid-2004, provides more stability and higher flux (gain of one order of magnitude) than did the old mirror. The SGM features two diffraction gratings (800 and 1600 grooves/mm), a water-cooled entrance slit, and a movable exit slit. The 22-Hz chopper is synchronized to the switching frequency of the EPW and provides both 22 Hz and 44 Hz signals to the phase-sensitive detector electronics. For more information please see: http://beamlines.ps.bnl.gov/beamline.aspx?blid=X13A
The X13 undulator has an 8 cm period, and its first harmonic is in the energy range of 200–700 eV at the nominal ring energy of 2.5 GeV. The beamline uses horizontally deflecting optics. It consists of a SiC plane mirror, a water cooled entrance slit, a spherical grating, and two fixed exit slits. A flux of more than 1012 photons/s at 450 eV was measured at X13A with an aluminum?oxide photodiode with a 200 μm entrance slit, a 500 μm exit slit, and a ring current of 242 mA. A VF3absorptionspectrum recorded at X13A shows the monochromator resolving power is at least 1000 at ∼500 eV with 30 μm entrance and exit slits, in agreement with calculations. The X13A beamline is used for x?ray coherence studies, spectroscopy, and multilayer reflectivity measurements as well as for x?ray instrumentation diagnostics.
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